Hunted down like animals and sold by their own families for £50,000: Tanzania’s albinos hacked apart by witchdoctors who believe their body parts ‘bring luck’ in sick trade ‘fuelled by the country’s elite
・WARNING GRAPHIC CONTENT
・Tanzania has the highest number of killings and attacks in Africa
・Trade in body parts driven by belief albinos bring luck and wealth
・Witchdoctors turning bodies worth thousands into charms and potions
・Greed drives husbands to turn on wives, parents to turn on own children
・Buyers thought to be some of Tanzania’s richest and most powerful people
To hack (verb)
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” to cut something in a rough way, with a lot of energy, or many times “という風に記載されています。
Jo hacked a piece off the block of cheese.
Three villagers were hacked to death in a savage attack.
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society: “という風に記載されていますね。
the country’s educated
elite a member of the elite
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” an object or saying that is believed to bring good luck: “という風に記載されていますね。
Many people carry good luck charms.
a good-luck charm
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” a strong wish to have more money, things, or power than you need “という風に記載されていますね。
their greed for power
He was motivated by pure greed.
I don’t know why I’m eating more – it’s not hunger, it’s just greed!
turn on (phrasal verb)
Cambridge Dictionaryによると ” to attack or criticize someone suddenly: “という風に記載されていますね。
Dan suddenly turned on her and yelled at her to be quiet.
Suddenly she just turned on me and accused me of undermining her.
Tanzania’s albinos are being ‘hunted down like animals’ as greed for money and influence drives families to turn on their own loved ones in a trade allegedly fuelled by some of the country’s most powerful people.
It is believed albino body parts will bring a person wealth, or luck – and for that, people are willing to pay as much as $3,000 or $4,000 for a limb, or as much as $75,000 – about £50,000 – for the ‘full set’, a whole body.
People with albinism are regularly attacked by people who chop their limbs off – an act which either leaves them severely mutilated, or dead.
To mutilate (verb)
Macmillan Dictionaryによると ” to damage someone’s body permanently by cutting it or removing part of it “という風に記載されていますね。
Many of the bodies had been badly burned or mutilated.
Albinism, a hereditary genetic condition which causes a total absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, affects one Tanzanian in 1,400, often as a result of inbreeding in remote and rural communities, experts say.
hereditary genetic condition は、遺伝による疾患や異常です。
In the West, it affects just one person in 20,000.
Since people began collecting records of the attacks, there have been 74 killings and 59 survivors of attacks. Even the dead are not safe: 16 graves have been robbed.
And these are only the recorded cases.
The most recent case saw four-year-old Pendo Emmanuelle Nundi abducted from her home in December.
Her father and uncle were both arrested in connection with her disappearance, but – despite rewards offered of £1,130 and promises of swift action from the police – she has not been found.
Charities working in the area do not hold out much hope she will be returned safely, but – listening to survivors’ stories – it is likely her end is, or will be brutal.
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” the process of producing children or animals from parents who are close members of the same family “という風に記載されています。
the dangers/effects of inbreeding
To abduct (verb)
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” to take someone away from their home, family etc using force “という風に記載されていますね。
Kidnappers abducted the child from the playground.
The company director was abducted from his car by terrorists.
Mwigulu Matonange was just 10 when he was attacked by two men as he walked home from school with a friend.
They chopped off his left arm, before disappearing back into the jungle with their ‘prize’.
‘I was held down like a goat about to be slaughtered,’ he told IPP Media after the February 2014 attack.
In Mwigulu’s case, the two men were strangers: he had never seen them before.
But it is understood suspicion turned on Pendo’s father after he took half-an-hour to report her abduction, despite there being neighbours who could have helped as soon as she was taken.
It is not just parents. A 38-year-old woman with albinism was attacked with machetes by her husband and four other men while she was sleeping in February 2013, according to a UN report.
Her eight-year-old daughter watched her father leave the bedroom carrying her mother’s arm.
Those living with albinism in Tanzania fear the lure of making a couple of hundred dollars – three times the minimum wage earned in the country – is placing them in danger, even from their own families.
‘Now we can see the parents who are involved in planning the attacks. What kind of war are we fighting if parents and family do this? Who can we trust?’ Josephat Torner, who campaigns for albino rights, asked.
‘You do not know who is your enemy.’
Josephat, who himself is albino, added: ‘People with the albinism are being hunted and killed for our body parts. It is because people want to become rich.
‘We are still living in danger. It is because people, they have different ideas. Some people, they are thinking they should get our body parts and sell to different places.
‘The question is, why? Why now? And who is behind the killings?’
Exactly who remains unknown.
But Josephat – who has received death threats for his work, and was attacked in 2012 – said: ‘The big fishes are behind the issue. It has been really a big discussion. If I say big fish, or big people, it is those who have enough resources, enough money.
‘People sell the body parts for high prices. So it is not really small fish behind it.
‘It could be politicians. It could be those people.’
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” the quality or power that something or someone has that makes it, him, or her attractive: “という風に記載されていますね。
the lure of fame/power/money
big fish (noun)
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” a person who has an important or powerful position in a group or organization: “という風に記載されていますね。
She’s a big fish in city politics.
He’s a big fish in advertising.
Josephat’s theory is backed up by Peter Ash, a Canadian who set up the charity Under the Same Sun in 2009.
‘In a country like Tanzania, which is the 25th poorest in the world, the only people with that kind of cash are politicians or wealthy businessman,’ he said.
But whoever they are, those buying the witch doctors’ wares are clearly powerful.
Only 10 people have ever been brought to trial for their part in albino attacks or murders – but not one of them was a ‘buyer’.
‘The only people who have been convicted are the witch doctors and the hired killers,’ said Peter.
‘But they would never name the customer – even when the witch doctor is given the death sentence. Never has a customer been named.’
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” goods that someone is selling, especially at a market or on the street “という風に記載されていますね。
a local painter selling his wares to tourists
Some displayed their wares on stalls, while others had just spread them out on the pavement.
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” the hearing of statements and showing of objects, etc. in a law court to judge if a person is guilty of a crime or to decide a case or a legal matter: “という風に記載されていますね。
There are, campaigners know, times when more albino attacks take place. And they know, with the general election coming up in October, now is one of the most dangerous times to be an albino.
The UN warned political campaigners were turning to witch doctors to help them win election back in August.
‘People with albinism are hiding while there are elections,’ said Peter.
Josephat added: ‘This year we are going to have an election. Since last year, we have been seeing attacks and killings.’
Already, there has been a noticeable increase.
Over the course of just 11 days last year, there were three attacks and two attempted attacks on people with albinism in Tanzania.
One man, thought to be in his early 20s, was found lying dead, his body mutilated, in the grass by some schoolchildren in a suburb of Dar Es Salaam.
The next day, a mother-of-seven was attacked in the Tabora region of Tanzania, losing her arm.
turn to (phrasal verb)
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” to go to someone for help when you are having difficulty dealing with a situation “という風に記載されていますね。
I’m sorry, but I had no one else to turn to.
There are plenty of people you can turn to for advice.
in the course of time (phrase)
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” after some time has passed “という風に記載されていますね。
Don’t worry, it will all become clear in the course of time.
I assume they plan to have children in the course of time.
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” an area on the edge of a large town or city where people who work in the town or city often live: “という風に記載されていますね。
Wanstead is a suburb of London.
Box Hill is a suburb of Melbourne.
We drove from middle-class suburbs to a very poor inner-city area.
A few days before, 15-year-old Pendo Sengerema was attacked as she ate dinner at home with her family.
They hacked off her right arm just below the elbow, before running off into the dark.
According to Under the Same Sun, a witch doctor had received an order from a wealthy client indicating that if Pendo’s arm could be provided, it would garner a price of $600.
The attack left Pendo terrified, begging to be sent away from her village.
‘I am asking the police to move me to a safer place and protect me because bad men might come back to kill me,’ she pleaded.
These ‘safer places’ are the centres set up around the country, where large number of people with albinism are living behind high walls for their own protection.
The camps were established after the first high profile waves of attacks, a knee-jerk response to a terrifying situation.
‘It was supposed to be a short term solution,’ Peter said. ‘But there was no long term plan.’
Years later, they still exist – and now are not just for children: adults are kept behind the camps’ high walls as well.
‘Children who are there, they are living there maybe for seven years without going back to their families,’ said Josephat.
‘At the end of the day, families or communities do not want to allow them to go back. These children are growing up without any parental care.’
‘If you ask the community why now are they forcing their children to the camps, they are saying it is where they belong. But we are not for the camps: we are for the community.’
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” after some time has passed “という風に記載されていますね。
When asked about crime, the mayor’s knee-jerk reaction is to call for longer prison sentences.
But the government now appears to be taking action: after widespread criticism of its reaction to Pendo’s abduction, it moved to outlaw the witch doctors behind the killings.
They have not banned traditional healers who use herbs, however.
‘These so-called witches bear responsibility for the attacks against albinos,’ interior ministry spokesman Isaac Nantanga said.
But as to whether it will make a difference for those living in fear for their lives remains to be seen.
Harry Freeland, who spent seven years following Josephat and other Tanzanian albinos for his documentary In the Shadow of the Sun, was cautious.
‘Really, we can’t jump to conclusions,’ he said. ‘It means nothing until we can see tangible results.
‘There is hope for strong action. But we have heard statements like this before.’
Peter is less confident, pointing back to 2009, when President Jakaya Kikwete declared he was outlawing witch doctors.
But the sweeping statement sparked a backlash in a country where many people still rely on traditional medicines, and the new law was quietly ditched.
But this time, the government is also putting an emphasis on education.
To outlaw (verb)
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” to make something illegal “という風に記載されていますね。
To bear (verb)
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” to accept, tolerate, or endure something, especially something unpleasant: “という風に記載されていますね。
It’s your decision – you have to bear the responsibility if things go wrong.
I can’t bear being bored.
I can’t bear seeing food thrown away.
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” careful to avoid problems or danger “という風に記載されていますね。
He’s a cautious driver.
a cautious approach
jump to conclusions (phrase)
Cambridge Dictionary によると ” to guess the facts about a situation without having enough information: “という風に記載されていますね。
Don’t jump to conclusions! Perhaps it was his daughter he was dancing with.
Macmillan Dictionary によると ” a sweeping change or development has a major effect “という風に記載されていますね。
It is obvious that sweeping changes are needed in the legal system.
We need to make sweeping cuts to our budget.
That’s something Josephat has been doing for years: risking his life to go into remote villages to explain to people they are not ghosts, but human beings whose bodies will not bring luck.
He hopes to reach more people now, with the help of Harry’s documentary.
And he hopes, eventually, that he will no longer have to leave his family behind in Dar es Salaam while he travels across the country.
In the meantime, he will continue campaigning and trying to raise awareness.
‘Why are we being threatened in our own country, because of our colour?’ he asked.
‘We are living like refugees in our own country because of our skin colour.
‘We are being judged for our colour. We are being punished.
‘What we are demanding is a right to life. This should be fundamental, but we are being denied it.’
‘I want to live like other people, the way they live.’
最後に、内容が理解でき、新しい単語も知ることができたら、必ずCambridge Dictionaryか、Macmillan Dictionaryで例文を読むようにしてください。そして一番シンプルで、自分が日常使いしときやすそうなもをノートやスマホに書き溜めておいてください。そしてこれを移動中の時などに声に出して覚えることが本当に大事です！（電車では難しいので、僕はよく歩きますw）